The Fate of Food
will give you a good overview of how tradition and technology might come
together to feed the world in the future.
I guess you could say that my purchase of The Fate of Food was an impulse buy (a
In early November last year, I went into a Barnes &
Noble store in San Luis Obispo, CA to buy a 2020 mini wall calendar to put up
on the tack board next to my desk. My plan had been to quickly find a calendar,
buy it, and then move on to the next errand on my list.
The calendar with the words “Serenity quotes for a peaceful mind” superimposed over a photo of a lovely calm looking lake appealed to me. I took it off the rack and turned around intending to walk back to the checkout counter. On the way, I decided I would just pop over to the environment/nature section to scout for new books that I might want to read in the future.
Standing there clutching my calendar I avidly scanned the
titles. The Fate of Food: What We’ll Eat
in a Bigger, Hotter, Smarter World by Amanda Little caught my eye. I pulled
the book off the shelf and flipped through it reading the book jacket and table
It looked interesting so I bought the book along with the
The Fate of Food
opens with Amanda Little recounting her tour of the Wise Company, a survival
food maker in Salt Lake City, UT. This visit occurred after she had traveled to
thirteen states in the U.S. and eleven countries pursuing an answer to the question
“What will be for dinner in the future?”
I knew I was going to like the book when I read the
following paragraph at the top of page 8.
“After my visit to the Wise factory, I whip up a bowl of rehydrated pot pie. In truth, I ask my kids to do it. They fire up the electric kettle, pour, stir, wait for the pebbly chunks to soften. To them, it’s a simple science experiment. To me, it’s confronting a future I don’t want to meet.”
It was heartening to discover that along with delivering
facts, information, and stories about other people, Little was willing to share
herself with me and you.
Reading The Fate of Food you will learn a lot of things, sometimes fascinating things, about apple farming, robots, aeroponics and aquaculture, animal-free meat, food waste, water, cloud seeding, moringa trees, and 3-D printed food.
You will also have an opportunity to ponder ways that small-scale and industrial-scale farming could be transformed to feed the world in a way that is healthy for people and the planet.
Here are a few snapshots of what you will be reading.
Chapter 3 – Seeds of Drought
In this section, you will meet Kenyan Ruth Oniang’o the
founder of Rural Outreach Program of Africa that focuses on improving
agricultural productivity while protecting small farmers. GMOs (genetically
modified organisms) and bioengineered food are covered here as well as the
dilemma faced by countries who are struggling to grow their own food.
“I am talking about using technology—modern seeds, modern methods—to benefit humanity, to produce food that’s clean, abundant, and climate-smart, in a way that frees small-scale farmers from drudgery. We shall industrialize our food production while maintaining the core of who we are.”
Chapter 7 – Tipping the Scales
Chances are you have heard the term aquaculture (think
farm-raised salmon). This chapter explores the potential benefits and
challenges associated with farming aquatic animals and plants in oceans,
specialized ponds, and tanks. If you are not currently familiar with algal blooms,
sea lice, or the resource efficiency of fish farming, you will be.
Chapter 10 – Pipe Dreams
Without water there is no food and agriculture is a thirsty
business. This chapter provides a look at how Israel, a country with very
little freshwater, handles its water supply. Other topics discussed here
include desalination, closed-loop water recycling, and using cloud-based
applications to detect leaks.
The book closes with Little’s visit to the farm of Chris and
Annie Newman who are reimagining farming.
“I was taught early on that we live within the ecosystem, not on top of it.”
The Bottom Line
Amanda Little is a journalist and a professor teaching investigative journalism and science writing at Vanderbilt University. She is also the author of Power Trip: The Story of America’s Love Affair with Energy.
The Fate of Food is a readable book that packs in a lot of material about many different food-related subjects. I think Little’s writing style and the way she conveys information in a story-like manner will appeal to a wide audience. What makes this book special to me is that Little relates to us, her readers, as fellow human beings.
After reading The Fate
of Food, I hope you will feel optimistic and motivated to learn more about
one or more of the topics covered in the book.
Featured Image at Top
A place setting sits on top of a green place mat – photo
Biotech crops continue to spread across the world but that does not necessarily mean GMOs and bioengineered food are good for people and the environment.
When I began my quest, at the beginning of July, to learn more about GMOs and bioengineered food, I did not have a preconceived destination. I did know that I wanted to attempt to filter out the noise surrounding this highly controversial subject to find some useful information for you and me so we could each form our own opinion and decide if we wanted to take further action or not.
Originally, I thought this fourth and final post in the series would cover general environmental issues, but when I had it mostly written, I realized that I wanted to focus on one specific issue—the proliferation of pesticide use on a massive scale, not just in the U.S. but across the entire world, driven by increasing adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops and spurred on by agrochemical companies.
Pesticides are Everywhere and in Everyone
One of the creepiest commercials I can ever remember seeing is the one that portrays an attractive 30-something family man as a hero because he wipes out a single dandelion growing in a crack in his driveway using the handily attached spray wand on his gallon-size jug of Roundup.
Pests and weeds (bugs and plants people do not like) have been around forever, are ubiquitous, and contribute to healthy ecosystems. Of course, there needs to be some kind of balance between us and them. Yet, humans seem to have developed a zero-tolerance for these constituents of nature and are on a mission to try to eradicate them by spraying pesticides everywhere.
So what is a pesticide?
The word pesticide is derived from the Latin pestis (deadly contagious disease; a curse, bane) and cide (killer or act of killing). It is an umbrella term that covers a wide variety of substances that humans use to kill living plants, animals, and other organisms that we do not want living in our buildings, yards, playgrounds, parks, or agricultural fields and orchards. Insecticides kill insects, herbicides kill plants, rodenticides kill rodents, fungicides kill fungi, and so on.
Non-GE crops may be sprayed with pesticides, too, but GE crops with built-in pesticide tolerance (especially to herbicides) actually promote pesticide use because they can withstand heavy and repeated spraying with pesticides.
65% of the GE crops approved in 2017 were genetically engineered with herbicide tolerance contributing to the global pesticide market that is valued at about $65 billion per year and growing.1, 2
Pesticides and People
The widespread acceptance of pesticides results in billions of pounds of pesticides being sprayed on agricultural fields and orchards all over the world, as well as in our homes and yards.3 Just in the U.S., there are over 16,000 registered pesticides and not that long ago, the EPA approved huge increases in what is called “tolerable” pesticide residues on crops and food.4, 5
In the real world, which is where everyone lives, we are exposed to pesticides in our air, water, and food every day.
In 2015, the World Health Organization designated glyphosate (the herbicide in Roundup) as a probable human carcinogen (meaning it probably causes cancer in people).6 Monsanto, the company that created Roundup during the 1970s, is facing more than 5,000 lawsuits in the U.S. alone.7
This is just one example.
Pesticides and the Environment
Pesticide makers want you to believe the pesticides only kill the targeted pest or weed but that is a gross oversimplification.
You have likely read about how neonicotinoid pesticides are endangering the bees and butterflies that pollinate our food crops and orchard trees as they go about their business. If we kill off nature’s pollinators, a lot of the food you currently buy at the grocery market will disappear, but even more worrying is that no one really knows what kind of a chain reaction could occur in the wild.
Another less publicized issue is dead zones in waterways and estuaries where no aquatic life can survive in the water or on the adjacent land. This, in turn, leads to erosion and flooding. Dead zones are created by fertilizers and pesticides running off fields and orchards into streams, rivers, and lakes. Pesticides kill organisms in the soil and you cannot grow plants or trees in the dead soil, therefore, fertilizers are applied to rejuvenate the soil and then pesticides are sprayed to kill bugs and weeds, which kills the soil.
Superbugs and superweeds are already evolving that can withstand the pesticides we try to kill them with, which causes a twofold problem. First, fields are sprayed more often and with a greater array of more toxic pesticides. Second, agrochemical companies race to invent poisons that are even more powerful. Then the pests and weeds evolve and the cycle continues.
Palmer amaranth (pigweed) is one weed that has evolved to resist herbicides and is now considered a superweed.
This led to the development of GE crops that can tolerate a more powerful herbicide called dicamba. This herbicide endangers people and as it drifts from fields where it is being sprayed dicamba settles on other crops and plants and kills them, too. This is just one superweed problem that has spurred state and federal investigations and lawsuits.8, 9
What Can You Do?
After wading through and digesting five weeks of research and discussing it with my family, I came to the conclusion that genetic engineering technology could probably be used to benefit society and even the environment, but I believe that our current approach to feeding the world is endangering people and the environment, while lining the pockets of a handful of multi-national corporations focused on quarterly profits.
We need to change.
It is up to each one of us to care enough about ourselves, our children, and the people of the future to take action to change the world. Governments and corporations only change when people say, “we are not going to take it anymore,” and demand change through their actions.
Farmers are on the front lines. Just like everyone else, they are trying to make a living, and they may feel they have no choice but to accept GE crops and the harmful agrochemicals they require. Farmers should not have to go to work wearing hazmat suits.
Let’s help farmers make a living providing healthful food to eat while protecting themselves, their families, us, and the environment. Here are a few ideas to get you started. Even if you can only do something occasionally, it all adds up.
Buy certified organic food. It is GMO-free and good for the soil.
Shop at the farmers market where you can actually talk to the people growing your food.
Make more meals with whole ingredients (packaged foods contain many GMO corn and soy products).
Shop at grocery stores that sell local and regionally grown food. Co-ops are a great source.
Donate your time and/or money to an organization, like Agrarian Trust, that helps young farmers who want to practice sustainable agriculture get access to farmland.
Eat vegetarian meals more often (a lot of GMO corn and soy crops are used to feed livestock animals).
Pass up fast food and make your own lunch sometimes (fast food contains a lot of GMO corn and soy).
Sign up for a CSA (community supported agriculture) share and get fresh seasonal food every week during the growing season.
Tell your elected officials that you want to eat pesticide-free food.
Let food companies know why you stopped buying their products and what they need to do to win you back as a customer.
“If, having endured much, we have at last asserted our “right to know,” and if by knowing, we have concluded that we are being asked to take senseless and frightening risks, then we should no longer accept the counsel of those who tell us that we must fill our world with poisonous chemicals; we should look about and see what other course is open to us.” —Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (1962)
Reader Note: At the end of this post, in the resource sections, I listed the books, films, and websites I used throughout this series as well as articles specific to this post. You can find other resources in the previous posts.
Featured Image at Top: Farmer Spraying Pesticide on His Crops Using a Drone – Photo Credit iStock/baranozdemir